Full-day preschool connected with elevated readiness for school
Along with aiding children’s social development, preschool has been found to instill academic benefits beyond initial years of school.
The controversy over the advantages of preschool continues to be released in to the national spotlight since President Barack Obama known as for universal use of high-quality preschool education for each American 4-year-old in the 2013 Condition from the Union address.
There’s an increasing body of educational research about the advantages of pre-K education, together with a consensus among scientists that youngsters who receive it perform better educationally in school. Preschool has additionally been found to assist in children’s social development. Numerous studies have proven the social and academic benefits persist past the initial many years of school.
Although openly funded preschool programs, for example Jump and condition pre-school, serve an believed 42% of four-year-olds in america, most provide only part-day services, and just 15% of three-year-olds enroll.
These rates, plus versions in quality, may take into account only 1 / 2 of children entering school getting mastered the abilities required for school success.
Arthur J. Reynolds, PhD, from the College of Minnesota, New york, and co-workers hypothesized that certain method for improving effectiveness of preschool programs could be to increase attendance from the part-day-to a complete-day schedule.
The scientists investigated whether full-day preschool was connected with greater amounts of school readiness, attendance and parent participation, in comparison with part-day participation.
The study, published in in the November 26th issue of JAMA, compares 982 predominantly low-income, ethnic minority children aged 3 and 4 in 11 Chicago Child-Parent Centers (CPC) that run both full-day (7 hours) and part-day (3 hours) programs.
Children weren’t at random selected for full- or part-day programs, because of the high probability of non-adherence by parents and college resistance. The work team used three criteria to assign children fully-day program:
- Children aged 4 years rather than 3 years
- Parental preference due to employment, education or transport barriers
- Lack of available care for the other part of the day.
Children in both groups attended preschool 5 days a week for at least 3 months and began no later than January 2013.
At the end of preschool, the researchers evaluated:
- School readiness skills (in several subcategories) of the children
- Attendance and chronic absences
- Parental involvement.
Full-day preschool promising strategy for school readiness and attendance
Among the 11 centers, 409 children enrolled in full-day classes and 573 in part-day classes.
Full-day participants demonstrated higher scores than part-day participants in six subcategories:
- Language: 39.9 versus 37.3
- Math: 40.0 versus 36.4
- Socio-emotional development: 58.6 versus 54.5
- Physical health 35.5 versus 33.6
- Literacy: 64.5 versus 58.6
- Cognitive development: 59.7 versus 57.7.
In the full-day group, 80.9% were at or above the national average on 4 or more subcategories, compared with 58.7% of the part-day group. Full-day preschool was associated with around a third of a year (3-4 months) improvement in all categories except cognitive development (1-1.5 months).
Full-day participation was associated with a higher rate of average daily attendance and lower rates of chronic absences, compared with part-day participation:
- Full-day attendance: 85.9%
- Part-day attendance: 80.4%
No significant differences were detected between the two groups for teacher and parent ratings of school involvement.
Children who attended the full-day preschool program had higher scores on measures of school readiness skills, increased attendance and reduced chronic absences, compared with children who attended part-day preschool.
“Full-day preschool appears to be a promising strategy for school readiness. The positive association of full-day preschool also suggests that increasing access to early childhood programs should consider the optimal dosage of services.”
“Additionally to elevated educational enrichment, full-day preschool benefits parents by supplying kids with a constantly overflowing atmosphere during the day, therefore freeing parental time for you to pursue career and academic possibilities. By providing another service option, full-day preschool may also greatly increase access for families who might not otherwise enroll,” he concludes.
Within an associated editorial, Lawrence J. Schweinhart, PhD, from the HighScope Educational Research Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI, comments that even though the associations present in this research were statistically significant, “they are certainly not substantial enough to warrant the bigger cost of full-day preschool, basically two times those of part-day preschool.”
“This should be debated and talked about by parents, educators, and policy makers and also the longer-term effects and economic returns analyzed. Partly, the significance of the research by Reynolds and co-workers is it signifies a modern day sample of kids as well as their families.” Schweinhart continues:
“The research by Reynolds and co-workers provides evidence that top-quality, full-day programs are educationally worth more than part-day programs.”
The 2012-2013 school year saw a loss of revenue of 9,160 children aged 4 from enrollment to condition pre-K programs across 40 states. With this thought, the number of parents will view this new information like a positive indicator to sign up the youngster to some preschool program or switch from the part-day-to a complete-day schedule?