What’s hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a kind of cardiovascular disease where the heart muscle (myocardium) becomes thickened with no apparent cause. Jetski from it from moving effectively and may cause sudden cardiac dying if not treated. Because the heart muscle thickens, muscle cells may also disorganize which could complicate the delivery of electrical signals with the muscle. The center muscle also becomes rigid which prevents muscle from fully relaxing.
The condition seems to happen equally in women and men and may affect people of numerous ages including infants. It normally evolves during childhood or youthful their adult years. More youthful individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy will probably suffer a far more severe type of the problem.
What are the signs and symptoms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
An indicator is one thing the individual feels or reviews, while an indication is one thing that others, such as the physician detects. Headaches might be one particualr symptom, while a rash might be one particualr sign.
An individual can suffer hypertrophic cardiomyopathy rather than feel any signs and symptoms, but signs and symptoms can be displayed at different stages of the person’s existence, varying from teenage life to dark ages or older. A summary of the potential signs and symptoms are below:
- Chest pain when under stress (angina)
- Heartbeat is erratic (palpatations)
- Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
- Feeling faint or light headed (syncope).
What causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
The precise reason for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is not fully recognized, however it appears that the problem is because of genetic mutation. Research has says roughly 1 / 2 of individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy possess a close relative using the disease. This kind of inheritance is known as autosomal dominant.
The genetic reason for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy for those who have no genealogy from the condition is called de novo mutation. There could also be non-genetic influences that create the condition. However, this really is not yet been confirmed in research.
How is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy diagnosed?
When diagnosing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, there are a variety of methods a doctor can choose from. These include:
- Carrying out a physical assessment – The patient will be asked about their medical history and what symptoms they are suffering/have suffered. Their heart will then be inspected for signs of valve leakage or obstruction.
- Using imaging tests – By producing an image of the heart, these tests help the doctor identify its condition. Methods include MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scans, Chest X-rays and echocardiograms. Echocardiograms use sound waves and are very useful in diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, as they identify heart muscle thickness, chamber size, range of valve movement, flow of blood and extent of obstruction.
- Taking a blood sample – There are specific gene mutations that can be identified by testing a sample of someone’s blood. The gene mutations that are known to cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be identified this way.
- Monitoring how the body responds to exercise – An effective way of checking the heart’s condition is by observing it during or just after exercise. This can be done a number of different ways such as an oxygen consumption test where the patient breathes into a mask during exercise. Other methods include: a thallium scan, monitoring the change in blood pressure or performing an echocardiogram after exercise.
- Performing cardiac catheterization – This involves insertion of a catheter into the left ventricle and ascending aorta so that the pressure difference between them can be gauged. If a person is suffering from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the pressures will differ.
What are the treatment options for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
It is important, when choosing the appropriate treatment method, to consider factors such as the risk of the procedure and severity of the condition. The following are types of treatment available to people with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy:
- Surgical myectomy – This is an open heart operation, in which a section of the overgrown muscle is removed and any obstructions cleared. Due to its complexity, an experienced surgeon would need to perform this procedure. Surgical myectomy is proven to be very successful at treating hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and has a low mortality rate of 1/100.
- Defibrillator therapy – A defibrillator may be required to prevent cardiac death for someone very high risk. It monitors the rhythm of the heart and corrects any irregularities using tiny electric shocks.
- Cardiac transplantation – This procedure also known as a heart transplant, involves replacing the diseased heart with a healthy heart from a recently deceased donor. It is a last resort reserved for when all other treatment methods have proved unsuccessful.
- Alcohol septal ablation – A less invasive alternative to surgery, alcohol septal ablation involves injection of alcohol into the artery that leads to the affected section of the heart. This leads to a small controlled heart attack (localized myocardial infarction) which can help alleviate the symptoms and lessen the extent of the obstruction.
- Medication – Use of certain medication can partially remove the obstruction and relax the heart muscles. Types of medication that can be used include anti-arrhythmia drugs and beta-blockers.
- Ventricular pacing – Using a pacemaker can prove useful in aiding the contraction of the left ventricle but is not consistently successful in all cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.